Before human activity impacted on the environment, Japan was for the most part covered in forest: subtropical forest in the southern part of Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu, as well as the southern islands; temperate forests through the remainder of Honshu; and boreal forests in … Its population is estimated at about 3,000, and about 250 bears are killed annually (Mano & Moll 1999: 129). 2001. Subsequent to the law being enacted, a limited number of areas were designated as “wilderness areas” and “nature conservation areas”, affording more protection than national park areas. Regarded as one of Japan's three great limestone caves, Emerald blue Kabira Bay (Kabirawan) is considered. 11 See, Ishikawa Tetsuya Nihon no shizen-hogo [Nature Conservation in Japan], Tokyo, 2001, 58–66; Cath Knight, Veneration or Destruction? Japanese economic growth: trend of acceleration in the twentieth century. Retrieved March 18, 2004. Tideland project brings waves of controversy. World history has witnessed Japan accomplish a high level of modernization within an exceptionally short period of time. Asian folklore studies. Retrieved November 12, 2003. Nagara River, the last major river in Japan to be dammed - then and now. However, owing to inadequate monitoring or education, visitors leave garbage in the forest, light fires, and enter specially protected areas where entry is prohibited (Kuroiwa 2002). Further, the conservation function of parks is undermined by the fact that park lands are not exclusively state-owned, and even in cases where they are under the jurisdiction of the state, this is often under government bodies which have economic or industrial interests in the use of park lands. 8 In a recent example, the 2005 Aichi Expo, which, somewhat ironically, boasted the theme “Nature’s Wisdom”, was criticised for the damage it caused to the forests on the site on which it was developed (Yoshimi, 2006: 395–414).

Several threatened species are known or expected to be negatively affected by the introduction of predators (primarily for snake control) to these islands. The United States and Japan cooperate on a broad range of global issues, including development assistance, global health, environmental and resource protection, and women’s empowerment. However it was not until 1992 that the Law for the Conservation of Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, Japan’s first domestic law for the protection of endangered and threatened species, was enacted. Further exacerbating the lack of protection for natural parks, in 1987 The National Resort Law was enacted, as part of the government’s plan to encourage tourism development. Habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation is undoubtedly the most serious threat to Japan’s wildlife and natural environments. The paper examined the key factors contributing to these threats to the natural environment. Limited commercial activity (such as the building or operation of ski facilities) is permitted on a concessionary basis by the administering body, the Department of Conservation. The Isahaya Bay tidal land was also an important stopover point for birds migrating between Siberia and Australasia. Link. Institute of Policy Sciences, Saitama University, Urawa, 338, Saitama, Japan, You can also search for this author in The Japanese people have now reached the point where they must reevaluate their traditional ideas about nature and their responses to technology. Any area which did not meet the criteria was designated as a quasi-national park. Finally, after much protest, an environmental organisation successfully used the media to draw attention to the plight of the rabbit, and the Ministry of Culture subsequently halted the golf course (Domoto 1997).

It was well documented that the area is habitat to seriously threatened species such as Blakiston’s fish-owl, the White-tailed eagle and the Pryer’s woodpecker, as well as being the sole remaining habitat of several other species. There was a complex network of fast-flowing rivers across the archipelago, feeding into numerous lakes. Saegusa Hiroto chodakushu [Collected papers of Hiroto Saegusa] [in Japanese], vol. Horitsu Bunka Sha. The traditional Japanese view of nature differs from that of Western culture. Natsume, D. 1974. To date, only a negligible proportion of natural park area has been designated as reserves in which human activity is strictly controlled: only five areas totalling 5,631 hectares (0.015 per cent of the total land area of Japan) have been designated as “wilderness areas”—areas where “activities entailing adverse effects on ecosystems are strictly prohibited”. The Amami black rabbit is an endangered species endemic to the southern Amami Islands (there are estimated to be only 1,000 rabbits remaining). A further characteristic of the national park system which does not lend itself to nature conservation is the system of jurisdiction over parks. Under the law, hunters must obtain a hunting license and register with the prefecture in which they intend to hunt. Another problem relating to the management of national parks is inadequate staffing. The Asia-Pacific Journal. Given the pervasiveness of these underlying factors, the outlook for Japan’s remaining natural environments appears bleak. Shikuma Shobou. 443-459. This is an ambiguous and imprecise term, but for the purpose of this discussion, it refers to environments such as wetlands, rivers or forests which support ecological systems of flora and fauna. 5 June. McGill 1992; Natori 1997; Ishikawa 2001) have suggested that in Japan, the designation of areas of “ecological significance” as a national or natural park, far from affording areas increased protection, often proves detrimental to the conservation of the area, owing to such factors as the development of tourist facilities, road construction, vehicle pollution and over-use. A park demonstrating the impact of this process is Shiga Heights, habitat to the famous snow monkeys. The combination of such factors in Japan has nevertheless resulted in a far-reaching assault on the environment. This has forced bears out into plantation forest or farming areas where they cause damage by stripping bark or feeding on fruit and other crops, with the result that they become more vulnerable to being targeted as pests. Retrieved June 16, 2003. Preserving Japan’s endangered animal species. Tadao Ando. Ministry of the Environment. Land reclamation projects have claimed 60 per cent of Japan’s tidal flats, half of Japan’s seacoast and about one-third of its wetlands, mainly to reclamation for agricultural, industrial and commercial use (NACSJ 2003; Danaher 1996). "Modernity, Water, and the Environment in Japan", in William M. Tsutsui, ed, A Companion to Japanese History, Blackwell Companions to World History, Malden, Ma, USA; Oxford, UK; Carlton, Australia: Blackwell Publishing. The intensive use of agricultural chemicals since the Second World War has caused contamination of soil and waterways, and has made farmland, marshland and other lowland areas uninhabitable for a number of species, causing the extinction of some, including the Japanese crested ibis (Nipponia nippon).7 Fertiliser and pesticide application levels in Japan are higher than those in almost all other OECD countries, partly because of the relatively hot, wet climate and intensive cropping, although it has been decreasing in line with overall reduction of crop production over the last decade (OECD 2002: 139). Kankyō hakushō 1999 (Environmental white paper 1999) (vols 1–2). Her doctoral thesis explored the human relationship with the Asiatic black bear through Japanese history [available here]. Lies, Elaine. The project entailed the construction of a seven kilometre long dyke to cut off the tidal area in order to create flood-pools and 1,500 hectares of farmland. In Bears: Status survey and conservation action plan, eds. Public works time bombs. There are a large variety of lakes in Japan including caldera lakes, subterranean lakes and lagoons. The project was proposed again during the resort-boom of the 1980s. Indigenous fish vanishing in Japan as invasion of American species spreads. As a result, many return home with a hardened misconception that Japan is one large, densely populated megacity.