:11–12 Andrew Pincus, who argued on behalf of AT&T Mobility in Concepcion, described the continued existence of the defense of unconscionability as preventing an "anything goes" approach to the enforcement of arbitration clauses. :253–54 In 2014 Barack Obama issued an executive order prohibiting federal contractors from enforcing arbitration clauses against employees bringing civil rights claims or alleging sexual assault. Some commentators have written that businesses removed arbitration administrators or threatened to do so in order to influence those administrators' policies. :¶96, Minnesota Attorney General Lori Swanson filed a complaint on July 14, 2009 alleging that the National Arbitration Forum engaged in several deceptive practices. A comments section allows the parties to provide an explanation and additional terms and conditions for their offers, including nonmonetary terms. :175, In 2004, Linda J. Demaine and Deborah R. Hensler wrote that "[t]he vast majority of [consumer arbitration] clauses place no limits on substantive remedies.":72. Denying Legal Assistance to Those Compelled to Participate in ADR Proceedings", "Circumventing Concepcion: Conceptualizing Innovative Strategies to Ensure the Enforcement of Consumer Protection Laws in the Age of the Inviolable Class Action Waiver", "Consumer Arbitration: Pre-Dispute Resolution Clauses and Class Action Waivers", "CFPB Arbitration Plan Provokes Dubious Industry Claims", "Challenging Class Action Bans in Mandatory Arbitration Clauses", "Mandatory Predispute Consumer Arbitration, Structural Bias, and Incentivizing Procedural Safeguards", "Drafting Arbitration Agreements: A Practitioner's Guide for Consumer Credit Contracts", "Arbitration study: Report to Congress, pursuant to Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act § 1028(a)", "The Shadow Terms: Contract Procedure and Unilateral Amendments", "Arbitration Everywhere, Stacking the Deck of Justice", "Break Out Those Arbitration Agreements: United States Supreme Court Issues Another Pro-Arbitration Decision", "After Class: Aggregate Litigation in the Wake of.
:8, According to a 2009 paper by the Searle Civil Justice Institute, in a sample of 301 cases by the American Arbitration Association that resulted in an award in 2007, the median length of time from the filing of a case to an award was 207 days.
In a consumer arbitration agreement, the business typically lists one or more third-party arbitration administrators that may conduct the arbitration.
 The CFPB has also issued an order for financial companies to provide copies of their consumer agreements for the arbitration study. :647 Justice Scalia, writing for the Court, first described how the savings clause of 9 U.S.C. Co., the Supreme Court stated that by enacting §2 of the FAA, Congress made a "declaration of a liberal federal policy favoring arbitration agreements". :5 Plaintiffs and lawyers attributed the lack of opt-outs to consumers not being aware of the existence of the arbitration clause or not understanding the ramifications of not opting out.
The AAA provides for fair administration of consumer disputes—and will exercise its authority to decline administration of arbitration demands where an arbitration clause contains material violations of the AAA Consumer Due Process Protocol, developed in 1998 in cooperation with representatives from government agencies, consumer interest groups, education institutions, and businesses. Separate guidance: New Business in Focus guidance on alternative dispute resolution (ADR) is also available. :59, The National Arbitration Forum assessed fees based on the size of the claim, according to a published fee schedule. :253, The AAA requires businesses with consumer arbitration clauses inconsistent with the Consumer Due Process Protocol to waive the offending provisions for all disputes or remove the AAA from their clause. To View Registered Consumer Arbitration Clauses.
 The CFPB stated that it intended to conduct further research focusing on consumer awareness of arbitration provisions, as well as whether consumers consider arbitration provisions in deciding what financial products to buy or use. To submit a complaint, please download and complete an application form here and upload it together with any supporting documentation.
You’ve accepted all cookies. :679–80, Unconscionability is a defense to the enforcement of a contract.
:393, In 1998, Richard E. Speidel discussed the possibility the unconscionability could be a defense to the enforcement of a consumer arbitration agreement, but he concluded that such a defense would be unlikely to succeed (even in a standard form contract) when the arbitration clause is not hidden or there are competitors that offer similar products or services without requiring arbitration.
:1488, Proponents of consumer arbitration have cited courts' usage of the unconscionability doctrine to say that current arbitration law sufficiently protects consumers from unfair terms.  In June 2017, AT&T stated that 412 arbitration cases had been filed against it since the beginning of 2015. This saving clause permits agreements to arbitrate to be invalidated by "generally applicable contract defenses, such as fraud, duress, or unconscionability," but not by defenses that apply only to arbitration or that derive their meaning from the fact that an agreement to arbitrate is at issue. , The examples and perspective in this article, The FAA and the Supreme Court's "liberal federal policy favoring arbitration", National Arbitration Forum ceases administration of consumer arbitrations, Arbitrators and arbitration administrators, Impartiality of arbitrators and arbitration organizations, Business selection of arbitration administrator, Business influence on arbitration administrators' policies, Allegations of impropriety by administrators, Availability of relief otherwise available in court, Number of arbitrations filed by consumers, Viability of post-dispute arbitration agreements, Proposed modifications to consumer arbitration law, Consumer Financial Protection Bureau study and rulemaking, Consumer arbitration outside the United States, AAA fees assessed in consumer claims (before March 1, 2013), Although parties may agree to class arbitration, most consumer arbitration clauses expressly forbid class arbitration (see.
§2): A written provision in any maritime transaction or a contract evidencing a transaction involving commerce to settle by arbitration a controversy thereafter arising out of such contract or transaction, or the refusal to perform the whole or any part thereof, or an agreement in writing to submit to arbitration an existing controversy arising out of such a contract, transaction, or refusal, shall be valid, irrevocable, and enforceable, save upon such grounds as exist at law or in equity for the revocation of any contract. Appeal of an arbitration decision is very limited; under the Federal Arbitration Act, an awarded may be vacated only if one of the following conditions is satisfied: Congress passed the Federal Arbitration Act (FAA) in 1925 to require courts to enforce valid arbitration agreements. :188 In a 2013 article giving advice to businesses on drafting arbitration clauses, Nicole F. Munro and Peter L. Cockrell wrote, "The class action waiver is the focal point of any arbitration clause.
 Swanson also alleged that the NAF improperly assisted credit card companies by drafting arbitration clauses and claims against consumers.  In August 1999, Consumer Reports cited a then-superseded arbitration clause by Gateway where a consumer would have to pay $2,000 to file a claim, would have to mail the claim to a Paris address, and would have to travel to Chicago for arbitration hearings.  Janet Cooper Alexander wrote that if the CFPB issues regulations that have the effect of reversing Concepcion, the Supreme Court may well strike those regulations, especially if the findings from the arbitration study are deemed insufficient to justify the regulations. :266 Before then, courts routinely refused to enforce arbitration agreements, making such clauses ineffective.:266.  Charles Gibbs wrote that consumers who opt out would only be able to join in a class action with other consumers who also opted out, and therefore such a class action would have less of a deterrent effect against the business. The government wants to encourage the development of ADR. We’ll send you a link to a feedback form. :873–74:1745, Theodore Eisenberg, Geoffrey P. Miller, and Emily Sherwin said that none of the contracts they researched had standalone waivers of class actions without arbitration clauses because, outside of arbitration clauses, class action waivers "are legally vulnerable and also politically controversial".